Wednesday, June 22, 2011

The origins of Tennis Game



In its present form the tennis was born in England in the last century, but its origins, in different forms, can be traced back even to 1555.

Tennis comes from the Jeu de Paume in French and then by the royal court, a game that is still practiced in England. Regarding the origin of the name have been in charge various theories, the most valuable of which wants the court derives from the Old French word tenetz. More uncertain are the origins of the singular points, it is likely that 15, 30, 40 (probably an abbreviation of the more logical 45) are considered to be the quarter (four points for a game) of a unit valued 60, according to the system is adopted for the measurement of time.


Other doubts are raised about the authorship of modern tennis, which is attributed by some historians to Wingfield, while others claim that he has only served to patent a game that was played for some time, drawing also economic advantages.


In July 1869, six British gathered at the headquarters of the British newspaper "The Field" to found a club called the All England Croquet Club, initially restricted to the practice of croquet, but it was soon supplanted by the courts. The club, settled in Marple Road, near the plant at Wimbledon, after changing its name to the All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club, organized in July 1877 the first tennis championships: the tournament, which was to win a cup £ 25 offered by "The Field" saw twenty-two participants and was won by S. Gore, known to history as "the first winner of the Wimbledon tournament."


The court was also played at the Olympics, the first (1896) until the edition of 1924 in Paris. In 1928 however did not appeared in Amsterdam, is said by some that a dispute on the brand of balls to be used, but that will almost certainly hide the underlying causes, such as the attitude of the British, who did not want that Olympics (for competitive tennis), although four-year, become more important for their tournaments. The idea to bring tennis to the Olympics is made difficult by the rules, which, although providing a dilettante in many cases only formal, prevents the participation of the best players, professionals openly, creating impact on the level of play.


Development and spread of the game

Wimbledon


The history of Wimbledon coincides with that for many aspects of tennis. From the beginning it was introduced the Challenge Round, whereby the winner of the first expected that the rounds came out his challenger, this system remained in force until 1921 at Wimbledon and the Davis Cup until 1971, facilitated the victories repeatedly, such as Renshaw, who won for six consecutive years and again three years later.

The first men's doubles was played for the first time in 1879, the women's singles in 1884, the women's doubles and mixed doubles in 1913. Wimbledon, which celebrated its centenary in 1977, is still the most prestigious tournament in the world.


The courts in the United States

It is said that tennis has arrived in the U.S. in 1874 in a box: Major Wingfield, already mentioned, to spread the court was created containing the necessary funds for a game (racquets, balls, network), which were then sold to five pounds. It is considered that some of these cases have landed in America, where tennis has found a very fertile ground. In a few years of the tournament were born, first of all, not for "birth year", but certainly least, the Davis Cup.


The Davis Cup
It is considered the oldest world championship team. He was born in 1900 by a group of friends in Boston, one of which, D. Davis, donated 217 ounces of silver, which were then transformed the famous trophy, now commonly called "salad bowl".

At first it was just a Davis Cup match between the Americans and British, who were the only players in the early editions. In 1904 he enrolled in France and Belgium, but did not participate the United States. Since its inception the tournament has been held annually, except in some occasions when you can not organize it, such as in 1901, in 1910, from 1915 to 1918 and from 1940 to 1945. The formula is always the same: four singles matches cross between the first two players of each team meeting and a double.
Until 1973, the Davis Cup was won by only four states: United States, France, England and Australia, which became the great "powers" of courts, both for athletes for tournaments.



the samples and professionalism
The first were the great champions of tennis English Renshaw twins, the brothers Doherty, they too British, and American Sears, who won the first seven editions of the U.S. Championships. A few years later he claimed the Australian Brookes, who took part in Challenge Rounds eight and New Zealand Wilding, who won Wimbledon in succession from 1910 to 1913, but died in the war in 1915. Twenty two years rose to the phenomena, still considered by some as the greatest tennis players of all time: the American Tilden and Suzanne Lenglen of France. Tilden won Wimbledon three times, first in 1920 and the third ten years later, in 1930, never succeeded in any business. The Lenglen, before turning professional in 1926, missed only one meeting in 1921 due to a withdrawal. In 1927 France defeated for the first time the United States in Davis Cup and took the trophy in Europe. To honor the company of players, in France, in Paris, was built the Roland Garros Stadium, where you can still play the International Championships of France.

The greatest tennis player of all time, however (though this is a qualification no value and meaning) is considered by many to B. Borg. Born in 1956, in 1974, only eighteen years old, won the Championship in Italy and France, has won Wimbledon for 5 consecutive years (from 1976 to 1980) and the Roland Garros five times in seven years. He has never won the U.S. Open and has pursued for a long time the grand slam (winning championships in a single season in Australia, Roland Garros, Wimbledon and U.S. Championships.
Until 1968 the various tennis tournaments and the Davis Cup were open, such as the Olympics, only to amateurs.
Since that year, however, participation in sports of tennis was free and opened the doors to the world champions, who led the game in these events at high levels and turnovers of several million dollars (it was said to example, that the Swede Borg earn 6-7 million dollars a year.

l The court in Italy
The court arrived in Italy late last century, imported by the English who were on holiday on the Ligurian coast, not surprisingly, the first Italian club was to Bordighera. The first attempt to establish a federation of tennis was made in 1894 but was unsuccessful and had to wait until 1910 to see made in fact the Italian Tennis Federation, which was located first in Milan and Rome.

At first the court was considered an elite sport and therefore it was practiced only by noblemen and rich, then approached the ball boys, who had the chance to play in secret circles of the rich, but only long after it became accessible to all social classes.

Today tennis is quite practiced in Italy, even at the amateur level, but unfortunately among practitioners and the good players we can not establish a proportional relationship.


the Technical and organization
Tennis is played on a rectangular court divided by a net 1.06 m high and 0.91 m at the sides to the center. The field is 23.77 m and width 8.23 ​​m and 10.97 m for the singular for the double. The service line is set at 6.40 m from the network.
The fundamental tool to play is the racket in its traditional version is a wooden tool with a long handle and a 34.3 cm oval head through which are stretched in both directions, nylon or gut strings. Overall, a racket is 68.6 cm long. Today, however, use shoes made of synthetic fibers, carbon fiber, graphite and fiberglass. In 1977 a German coach built of poles whose strings, intertwined in ways unusual, allowed a significant impact, and these shoes were banned by the International Federation, however, after some of the players were also used to obtain surprising results.

The tennis ball is rubber, hollow and covered with cloth; must have a diameter between 6.35 and 6.67 cm and should weigh between 56.7 and 58.5 g, the internal pressure must be such as to enable the ball a deformation between 0.56 and 0.74 cm when subjected to a weight of 8.165 kg. The balls can be yellow or white.
In tournaments are changed after the first 7 (9) games and then every 9 (11) games.
The playing surfaces are divided into four categories: the clay - in Europe red, green and artificial in the U.S. - the concrete (or similar compositions), the grass - common in Britain and on which you play Wimbledon - and synthetic carpets, on which all meetings are held indoors. Between one surface and one run important differences, particularly with respect to the bounce of the ball and then the speed of the game.


A tennis match can be played best of three sets or best of five sets. The women's and mixed matches are played best of three sets. Each set consists of six games, to win a game you have to make four points but an advantage of two on the opponent. If you get to 40 even, who wins the next point gain an advantage, which turns into a game with another point, otherwise it returns "advantage of" and so on.

Even win a set you need a lead of two games, so if you get 5 of 7 will continue to, if you get 6 of you go through eight, and so on.
In 1970 he was introduced the tie-break (break ties), which provides about 6 of a special game to win it one must win 7 points, but always having the advantage of 2 on the challenger. The tie-breaks not played in many tournaments and Davis Cup is not played either the deciding set.

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